Michael Timpane maintains that a continued federal role in educational research is both necessary and appropriate, and yet has not received sufficient support from professional educators. He traces the history of the relationship between the federal government and the research community, culminating in the development of the National Institute of Education (ΝΙΕ). He further delineates the areas of education in which he believes research has made important contributions, attributing many of these gains to improvements in research methodology. In response, Gordon Ambach concurs with the need for continued federal involvement in educational research and for increased professional support of such endeavors, but adds that ΝΙΕ should not be the sole provider of such research; educators can gain important knowledge from business and industry as well as from research generated at the federal and state levels. Sheldon White discusses the varied views of the relationship between research and education and suggests that they share a common element—concern with a reflective practice. Richard Light reviews the accomplishments of federally initiated educational research by presenting the findings from three programs—Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the Emergency School Aid Act, and Public Law 94–142—to illustrate how candid reporting of research results can lead to program improvement.